It can be deﬁned as arranging the work, processes, authority, resources and employees in the right order so that all the organizational activities can take place in a deﬁned and orderly manner. The Proper arrangement ensures timely attainment of objectives and minimization of work chaos and miscommunications. Organizing deﬁnes various relationships in an organization, such as authority-responsibility, and inter-departmental relationships. It is because of those structural arrangements and relationships, the future plans of an organization are developed and carried out. Similar to planning, organizing is also an on-going activity that changes with any change brought about in any function of an organization. The function of organizing is different for different objectives and goals. For example, organizing the functions and work processes of an accounting department are different from that of a marketing department.
Organizing is the distribution of work in group-wise or section-wise for effective performance. Organization provides all facilities which are necessary to perform the work. After the business gets developed, the organization takes responsibility to create some more departments under different managers. Hence the organization divides the total work and coordinates all the activities by authority relationship. Besides, organizing deﬁnes the position of each person in the organization and determines the paths through which communication should ﬂow. The manager would determine who should report to whom and how.
According to Henry Fayol, “Organization is of two kinds: Organization of the human factor, and organization of material factor. Organization of human factor covers the distribution of work to those who are best suitable along with authority and responsibility. Organization of material factor covers utilization of raw materials, plant as well as machinery”.
An organizing function may also be deﬁned as a process of integrating, balancing, unifying, and coordinating the activities of employees and different organizational departments for accomplishing predetermined objectives.
The organizing function involves
- Determining and explaining the activities required achieving planned objectives.
- Grouping the activities among different departments.
- Assigning activities to individuals at speciﬁc positions.
- Delegating the authority to individuals for carrying out activities.
- Explaining the roles and responsibilities to individuals.
- Laying down horizontal and vertical authority relationships throughout the organization.
The example of the process: To elaborate the subject further, after planning is completed, we have to bring all the resources together in a certain format, which makes easy for us to take actions. As detailed earlier, there are four resources viz. men, machines, material, and money which have to be brought together in the proportion as per plan. When we talk about the organization, it is not only the organization of men but also the organization of machines, materials, and money. Remember, after planning, we should not jump to actions. Organizing is the function for preparing for action. Before we start any action, the resources must be properly mapped.
As stated earlier, if we are managing an event like marriage ceremony, while performing various activities like booking of the hall, sending invitations, receiving guests and putting them into hotels etc., we must ensure that proper time table, schedule, allocation of work to various persons are done systematically and in time. Otherwise, we will be stressed and then will make mistakes because of leakage of energy.